Comparative research in communication and media studies is conventionally understood as the contrast among different macro‐level units, such as world regions, countries, sub‐national regions, social milieus, language areas and cultural thickenings, at one point or more points in time. As a result, there may be multiple explanations for differences between two cases, even if they are comparable, as in the case of Sweden and Belgium. First, the purpose of comparison must be explicated early in the project, and it should be a defining component of the research design. Overall, there are several conditions that should be fulfilled before labeling a comparison as a mature comparative analysis. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The two main choices within this model are comparing two stages in time (either snapshots or time-series), or just comparing the same thing over time, to see if a policy's effects differ over a stretch of time.[3]. A third innovation, in addition to incorporating external variables and examining their interplay with domestic variables, is to integrate de‐territorialization into comparative designs. Confirmed hypotheses are extremely valuable, as they offer the opportunity for prediction. [3][4][5][6] The general method of comparing things is the same for comparative research as it is in our everyday practice of comparison. Their analysis suggests that there are two paths to personalization of political communication. These include descriptive, basic explanatory, comparison of relation, and comparative explanatory questions. Thus, the question is: how does comparative communication research proceed in practice? The distinct feature of primary research is that the researcher focuses on collecting data directly rather than depending on data collected from previously done research. As a method strategy, comparison plays an important part in the most diverse branches of the Statistically, the descriptive comparison of two (or more) countries is not too difficult, and comparisons of means (e.g., t‐tests) and analyses of variance (e.g., ANOVAs) are often sufficient. In an ideal setting, coder training is intense and repeated until intercoder reliability is sufficiently satisfactory. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Determining whether socioeconomic or political factors are more important in explaining government action is a familiar theme. When one is not able to extend the sample to include more countries (or other types of units), one may be able to obtain data from the same cases at multiple points in time. However, there are other types that also deal with many aspects of data including data collection, prediction, and planning. There are four different types of quantitative research methods: Primary quantitative research is the most widely used method of conducting market research. Recent advances and remaining challenges for social science research, Comparing nations: Concepts, strategies, substance, Who's afraid of conflict? John N. Hawkins and Val D. Rust (2001) “Shifting Perspectives on Comparative Research: A View from the USA,” Comparative Education 37, no. Consequently, they call for “harmonization of the research object and the research method” across studies to guarantee the best possible comparability and generalizability. Sampling, Content Analysis; Both characteristics prevent higher‐level statistics from being used effectively for testing construct equivalence in cross‐national content analyses. The first option is to determine the extent to which they have actually achieved construct equivalence after the fact, primarily by means of statistical analysis. To conduct a multilevel model, one needs a reasonable number of higher level units, specifically, a minimum of 10–15 units is required. For example, Vliegenthart et al. If these interaction terms are not significant, the relationship is similar across countries. Unfortunately, no reliable catalogues exist that classify international media outlets according to these categories, a situation that emphasizes the need for clear justification. Comparative research aims to understand how characteristic factors of the contextual environment shape communication processes differently in different settings. To answer this question, we distinguish five practical steps, each connected to a specific research goal. Furthermore, they only select countries to which they have access, which predictably results in an overrepresentation of wealthier countries with better access to academic resources. WHAT IS RESEARCH?The systematic, rigorous investigation of asituation or problem in order to generate newknowledge or validate existing knowledge. Like cases are treated alike, and different cases are treated differently; the extent of difference determines how differently cases are to be treated. Quantitative Methodology; Comparative analysis is about control (Sartori, 1994). The comparison of contexts serves as a robustness check to determine whether a relationship holds in various situations. That said, if territories are compared, the comparison can occur at many levels above and below the nation‐state and can incorporate other relevant social, cultural, and functional factors. The research is based on the assumption that different parameters of political and media systems differentially promote or constrain communication roles and behaviors of organizations and actors within those systems. His books include Comparing Political Communication (2004, with B. Pfetsch), Handbook of Comparative Communication Research (2012, with T. Hanitzsch), and Comparing Political Journalism (2016, with de Vreese and Hopmann). Such differences in communication styles may have interesting substantial reasons embedded in a certain culture, but they make it difficult to compare data cross‐culturally without additional tests. Comparative research is useful for classifying shared social phenomena, placing cultural values in context and analyzing cultural differences. This notion of path‐dependency is also reflected in the concept of glocalized hybrid cultures and hybrid media formats. London: Routledge. His approach, Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), is a configurational or holistic comparative method which considers each case (system, culture) as a complex entity, as a “whole,” which needs to be studied in a case‐sensitive way. A sophisticated extension of the most different and most similar logic was developed by Charles Ragin (1987, 2008). Neither do they link their selection to rationales of most similar or most different systems design (see further later), which suggest careful case selection based on the research question the researcher seeks to answer. In a follow‐up correspondence analysis of six national press systems over a 40‐year time span, he finds similar political news cultures (Esser & Umbricht, 2013). Combining cross‐sectional and longitudinal designs helps to understand these transformation processes and makes clear that different contexts affect the results in different ways. These new spaces are de‐territorialized, that is, they are no longer confined to territorial borders and have been variously called translocal mediascapes (Appadurai, 1996), “emerging transnational mediated spheres” (Hellman & Riegert, 2012), “new forms of public connectivity” (Voltmer, 2012) or, more briefly, “media cultures” (Couldry & Hepp, 2012). Frank Esser is professor of international and comparative media research at the University of Zurich, where he co‐directs an 80‐person strong National Research Center on the Challenges to Democracy in the 21st Century (NCCR Democracy). [4] A good example of this is the common research program that looks for differences between two or more social systems, then looks at these differences in relation to some other variable coexisting in those societies to see if it is related. Approaches and methods in comparative education research are of obvious importance, but do not always receive adequate attention. Implicit comparisons need to fulfill several requirements. Sample equivalence refers in surveys to an equal selection of respondents and in media content analyses to an equal selection of news outlets. Generally speaking, comparative analysis performs several important functions that are closely interlinked. Instead, other forms of belonging come to the forefront. Otherwise, it is more appropriate either to work with dummies for the higher level units (see previous section) and reason theoretically about different relations across countries, or to use standard errors clustered at the higher level. In this study and in similar studies, the analyses are descriptive in nature, and as such, they involve comparisons regarding the presence of issue framing and game framing in various newspapers. To entertain, inform, and educate: Still the role of public television? However, as these authors also note, though the techniques just mentioned work well for multi‐country surveys, they are less efficient for comparative content analysis. This recognition of the (causal) significance of contextual conditions is why comparative research is so exceptionally valuable. To understand the relationship between divergent contextual influences and the respective implications for the object of investigation, scholars identify and operationalize key explanatory and outcome variables, which can be arranged in various forms to pose different kinds of explanatory research questions (see later). The second type of research question addressed in comparative research is a basic explanatory one. The final type of question is labeled comparative explanatory. Despite these difficulties, these considerations must be factored into the choices made on the basis of the most similar and most different systems design rationale to avoid skewed samples as they, in turn, might cause misinterpretations of findings. On Evaluating Curricular Effectiveness: Judging the Quality of K-12 Mathematics Evaluations. (2013), for example, studies how political system characteristics (closed‐list proportional system or not) affected the level of conflict framing in national outlets during the 2009 European Parliamentary election campaign. In recent years, comparative research in communication science has gained considerable ground. We will return to this method further later. Comparative studies can be used to increase understanding between cultures and societies and create a foundation for compromise and collaboration. Methodologically, an emic (culture‐specific) or etic (universal) approach may be applied. In this example, the cases being compared are two countries. As a consequence, two sub‐approaches are identified. The fourth step is explanation. For another example, Rössler (2012) reminds us that a liberal political affiliation is measured differently in Northern America and Western Europe due to different respective standards of the national political cultures. For this reason, Kohn (1989) created, with great vision, another model for international comparison, which he called the transnational model, a model that treats countries as loci of border‐transgressing trends. This explanatory logic can be distinguished from a mere descriptive comparison that is considered less mature, and it also extends clearly beyond the general advantages of comparison as outlined before and constitutes the status of comparative analysis as a separate and original approach. Similarly, questioning of the Greek laws and institutions and its related values and practices (e.g. Esser (2008) applies this technique and identifies, based on a comparative content analysis of television election news, three different political news cultures across five Western countries. That is, if exploratory factor analyses result in similar factors and factor loadings for various items across countries, it is interpreted as a good sign (Vliegenthart, 2012). They rely on a set of regression analyses, one for each single country. This technique often utilizes multiple disciplines in one study. First, comparativists must realize that explanatory variables for certain communication outcomes will no longer be derived from domestic contexts alone, but will also come from foreign models. Comparative research can take many forms. In general, however, the only thing that is certain in comparative research issues is the existence of differences to be analysed. To fully exploit these benefits, it is essential that the objects of analysis are compared on the basis of a common theoretical framework and that this is performed by drawing on equivalent conceptualizations and methods. Those tests include differential item functioning techniques and confirmatory factor analysis (Vliegenthart, 2012; Wirth & Kolb, 2012). Thus, a native language approach where all coding instruments are translated into the various native languages is a less than ideal approach because it is essentially impossible to determine meaningful reliability coefficients among the coder groups in different languages. On the other hand, both in terms of quantity and quality, comparative communication research is lagging behind compared to neighboring disciplines, such as political science and sociology. The first is heterogeneity, which refers to the differences in levels of the dependent variable across units (in this example, countries) that cannot be explained by the independent variables included in the model. Working off-campus? While equivalence relies on the cultural expertise of collaborators and their analytical abilities to develop a unified theoretical framework, methodological and administrative equivalence largely entails managerial capacities. In this entry, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of comparative research. Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures. Such quasi‐experimental research designs often forbid a strongly causal attribution of explanatory factors for the determined variance of the dependent variable. In factor analysis, correlation matrices are used, and interval variables with (roughly) normal distribution and linear association are required. In those instances, techniques such as multidimensional scaling, correspondence analysis, or cluster analysis may be warranted. Schuck et al. Today, “the” standard form of comparative analysis is usually equated with research methods based on John Stuart Mill's (1843) Methods of Agreement and Difference and Adam Przeworski and Henry Teune's (1970) Most Different and Most Similar Systems Designs. With respect to content analysis, instrument bias refers to the coding instructions in the codebook and the fact that (a) coders understand/interpret the instructions differently, (b) may possess different levels of knowledge regarding the instructions, and (c) may not consistently apply the codes. Comparative historical research is a method of social science that examines historical events in order to create explanations that are valid beyond a particular time and place, either by direct comparison to other historical events, theory building, or reference to the present day. VARIOUS TYPES OF RESEARCHES VAISALI K B070225AR 2. To conduct quantitative research, methods like online survey, questionnaires, sampling methods etc. Exploring the effects of building information modeling on Projects: longitudinal social analysis... Distinguishes four types of statistical analysis and methodologies are descriptive and inferential the single case at hand dimensions. 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